" A wealth of information..."

"1169 And Counting is a wealth of information on our Republican past and present , and demonstrates how the Irish political landscape , like that of any nation, will never be a black and white issue..."

(From the ‘e-Thursday’ section of the ‘Business Week’ supplement of the ‘Irish Independent’ , 21st August 2008.)



IRISH BLOG AWARDS 2017 - ooops! It seems that our entry application was "not completed in time to be considered.." (?) and, as such, we are not now in the running. But we wish all the best to the successful entrants and to the organisers, and we hope all goes well for them on the day!


Friday, January 07, 2005

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... rumours were being spread that the Boundary Commission had decided to order the Free Staters in Leinster House to cede some of its territory to Stormont ; the Free Staters declared that that would not happen but then , days later , its one and only representative on that three-person Commission , Eoin MacNeill , resigned from that body . The rumours persisted and , three days after he resigned from the Boundary Commission , Eoin MacNeill 'resigned' (or was 'pushed' ?) from the Free State Government itself . The Brits , however , had more 'humble-pie' for their serfs in Leinster House to digest .......


A little-known clause in the ruling of the British 'Judicial Committee of the Privy Council ' came into play - this stated that the Boundary Commission was fully within its rights to continue with its brief even if it was reduced in size ie from three to two members ! The 'all new' (ie two-member !) Boundary Commission then reminded the Free State President , William Cosgrave , that he had given a pledge to them , in September 1924 , that he would accept the Commission's findings , which he had because , being the 'cute hoor' Free Stater that he was , he reckoned (and was probably led to believe by the Brits) that the Commission would insist on no territorial change being made , which would allow the Free Staters in Leinster House to shrug their shoulders , rub their hands , fraudently claim
annoyance and say - ' Ah , well , sure we tried our best .... '


But now , by all accounts , it seemed that the Free State would have to hand over some of its territory to the Six County 'State' - the 'get-out' plan was back-firing on them ! On the 25th November 1925 , one day after Eoin MacNeill had washed his hands of the whole lot of them , Free State President William Cosgrave and Kevin O'Higgins , the Free State 'Minister for Home Affairs' , went to Downing Street , in London , where they held a meeting with the then British Prime Minister , Stanley Baldwin , and the Stormont 'Prime Minister' , 'Sir' James Craig . The Free Staters were , by this stage , in a state of controlled panic - as well the Brits knew .

Eight days later (ie on 3rd December 1925) , an 'arrangement' was agreed between the Free Staters and the Brits - and , with the Staters being 'on-the-ropes' , Westminster done them no favours .......

(MORE LATER).


WE FIGHT ON , SAY IRA CHIEFS .......
... and Maggie is still on their hit list .

Twenty years into their campaign against the British Army , the IRA is still as far from victory , or defeat , as ever . Now , its leaders talk exclusinely about their plans .
Margaret Thatcher is still a target , so are some members of the British Royal family , while attacks on British forces in continental Europe will continue . Peace is out , says a spokesman , there is nothing to be gained from a ceasefire .

By Derek Dunne .
First published in 'NOW' magazine , volume 1 , No. 4 , October 1989 , pages 5 and 6 .
Re-published here in 10 parts .
[10 of 10].

In an interview , an IRA spokesperson said - " Life for the bulk of our Volunteers is'nt a bed of roses - there is no difference , except in dates , between what is happening in the Six Counties today and what happened in the Tan War . Had the Republicans of 1921 held out against the threat from Lloyd George of an immediate and terrible war perhaps we , the children of the civil rights generation , would not have inherited this British nightmare , and all the calumny that comes with it , from politicians in their cosy positions in the 26 Counties - positions earned from the sacrifices of the IRA earlier this century . " ('1169...' Comment - ironic now that some of those "cosy politicians" are members of Provisional Sinn Fein and , by their (in)action , are postponing the struggle for a future generation to take up !)

The IRA spokesperson said the IRA was appealing to " ordinary people " to take a 60-year view of the North - " Then they'll appreciate that it is not the IRA who are to blame for the state of things but those in power who have chosen to perpetuate injustice and inequality . " On the subject of killing Protestant members of the British forces , he said -

- " Ulsterisation has all the advantages of allowing the Brits to portray the conflict as being between two indigenous peoples on British soil , whose differences are largely religious , whereas the truth is that the UDR and the RUC (pro-British forces in the Six Counties , comprised mainly of locals) are willing puppets of British imperialist rule and their religion has got nothing to do with it . "

[END of ' WE FIGHT ON ....'].
(NEXT - ' PASSIONATE FRIEND ' : ALISTAIR LOGAN - from 1987).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(18 of 31).

Another U.S. Grand Jury convened in Philadelphia in 1973 and subpoenaed local members of NORAID ; one of them , Daniel Cahalane , was suspected of purchasing twenty thousand dollars' worth of guns and ammunition in Norristown , Pennsylvania .

Like the men brought to Fort Worth , Cahalane refused to answer the Grand Jury's questions , and on July 27th 1973 he was jailed for contempt . Defence lawyers alleged that Daniel Cahalane and two other local men were the victims of wiretapping .

Two years later , Cahalane , along with four other NORAID activists , was indicted for conspiracy to smuggle weapons and munitions to the IRA ; one of those charged was an ex-steward on the liner 'QUEEN MARY' , who was accused of sending six suitcases of arms and ammunition on the QE2 with an 83 year-old woman .......

(MORE LATER).






Thursday, January 06, 2005

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... the Free Staters in Leinster House had looked-on and allowed Westminster to nominate two of the three representatives to the Boundary Commission (thus breaking the 1921 Treaty) ; then , in a further act of humiliation , ' The London Morning Post ' newspaper reported (on 7th November 1925) that it looked like the Free Staters were going to be ordered by the Boundary Commission to hand-over some of its territory to the Six-County 'State' ....... !


The Brits were 'flying a kite' , or getting their retaliation in first (!) - and it worked ! The Nationalist population in the Free State 'border' counties were being 'fed' with rumours that their areas were to be 'handed-over' to Stormont in return for a couple of 'border fields' in South Fermanagh and/or South Armagh . Within four days (ie by 11th November 1925) the (first) President of the Free State , William T. Cosgrave , was trying to calm things down - he stated that the Free State would not agree to transfer any of its territory to the Stormont administration .

Ten days later (ie on the 21st November 1925) , with the panic-level growing , Eoin MacNeill resigned from the Boundary Commission , a move which only fed the rumour-mill . The Brits jumped in here , again , and fanned the flames by claiming that , before he had resigned , Eoin MacNeill had agreed that the Free State should cede some territory and , whats more , that MacNeill saw nothing wrong about , and had no problem with , Westminster appointing the Stormont representative to the Boundary Commission !

Three days later (ie on the 24th November 1925) Eoin MacNeill , by now the centre of much 'did-he-or-did-he-not' speculation , 'resigned' from the Free State Government itself (pushed or 'resigned' ...?) .

But the Brits were not finished 'stirring' things up just yet ; they had more 'salt' and spied another Free State 'wound'.......

(MORE LATER).


WE FIGHT ON , SAY IRA CHIEFS .......
... and Maggie is still on their hit list .

Twenty years into their campaign against the British Army , the IRA is still as far from victory , or defeat , as ever . Now , its leaders talk exclusinely about their plans .
Margaret Thatcher is still a target , so are some members of the British Royal family , while attacks on British forces in continental Europe will continue . Peace is out , says a spokesman , there is nothing to be gained from a ceasefire .

By Derek Dunne .
First published in 'NOW' magazine , volume 1 , No. 4 , October 1989 , pages 5 and 6 .
Re-published here in 10 parts .
( 9 of 10).

The IRA spokesperson said - " There are academics and leading media personalities trying to revise and re-write Irish history from a hidden anti-nationalist perspective ; if they are successful , the people of the 26 Counties will find themselves even more stateless and souless in terms of their national identity than they are at present . They are at the centre of a struggle for their people , but it is being waged on unequal terms .

Anyone who stands up for Irish culture , Irish language or neutrality , who questions the repressive laws enacted by the State , who questions censorship , immediately feels the heat of the wrath of the revisionists and is made to feel responsible for killing 3,000 people ! What people need to understand is that the IRA , contrary to what a former Minister for Defence said , is not about to walk down O'Connell Street with a thousand AK47 rifles .

The IRA is a small , closely-knit organisation made up of dedicated people - it has not got the resources , nor the might , nor the desire , to over-rule the will of the Irish people . What has kept the IRA going has been the tenacity , comradeship , individual heroism ; and the desire to see peace ....... "

(MORE LATER).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(17 of 31).

In June 1972 , the U.S. Justice Department subpoenaed five New York members of NORAID to appear before a Grand Jury sitting in Fort Worth , Texas , to investigate alleged arms smuggling across the Mexican border : all the men were in their seventies , of working-class backgrounds , and had been active in NORAID - attending functions and rallies and picketing the British Consulate .

Human-rights lawyers , like Paul O'Dwyer , who took up their case , accused the U.S. Government of deliberately harassing Irish-American activists by forcing them to go some 1,400 miles to testify . There was an outcry not only within the Irish-American community but also among civil libertarians .

Eventually , bail was granted thanks to the intervention of Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas , whom Paul O'Dwyer had gone to see personally . After ten months , the five men were released ; no indictments were ever brought against them .......

(MORE LATER).






Wednesday, January 05, 2005

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... the 1921 Treaty of Surrender was unlawfully changed by the Brits on the 9th October 1924 ; 15 days later (on 24th October 1924) , Westminster placed a Mr. J.R. Fisher (a 'safe pair of hands') on the Boundary Commission to sit beside its other 'friend' on that three-person Commission , South-African Judge Feetham , who was also the (British-appointed) Chairperson of that Commission .......


The Free Staters in Leinster House could (and should) have taken a legal case stating that the Boundary Commission was not properly constituted , as per the agreed 1921 Treaty , thereby highlighting , on an international stage , British duplicity - but that would have required 'balls' , excuse the language , and the Free Staters , then, as now , have none .

Plus , on 7th October 1924 (which was two days before Westminster took it on itself to 're-jig' the 1921 Treaty) , 'Sir' James Craig (Stormont 'Prime Minister') had stood up in that 'parliament' and made a speech directed at Westminster - Craig was well-aware that the British would not hesitate to 'cross' their 'friends' , as well as their enemies and he knew they were only days away from appointing a Stormont representative to the Boundary Commission ; so he 'reminded' them of where he stood -

- Craig stated in his speech that an " unfavourable " decision by the Boundary Commission would see him resign as Stormont 'Prime Minister' and take charge of at least 40,000 armed men who were of similar mind with him , and that they would not rule out any steps necessary " ... to defend their territory ..... " .

The chances are that 'Sir' Craig had already been assured by Westminster that he had nothing to fear from the Commission , but what career politician can resist an opportunity for a bit of 'grandstanding' ?

Then came another 'spanner' in the Free State 'works' : on 7th November 1925 , a newspaper in London ('The London Morning Post') reported that the Boundary Commission had apparently decided that the Free State should hand over some of its territory to the (pro-British) Stormont 'parliament' ....... !

(MORE LATER).


WE FIGHT ON , SAY IRA CHIEFS .......
... and Maggie is still on their hit list .

Twenty years into their campaign against the British Army , the IRA is still as far from victory , or defeat , as ever . Now , its leaders talk exclusinely about their plans .
Margaret Thatcher is still a target , so are some members of the British Royal family , while attacks on British forces in continental Europe will continue . Peace is out , says a spokesman , there is nothing to be gained from a ceasefire .

By Derek Dunne .
First published in 'NOW' magazine , volume 1 , No. 4 , October 1989 , pages 5 and 6 .
Re-published here in 10 parts .
( 8 of 10).

Regarding the internal discipline and past mistakes like the blunders which led to a series of accidental deaths last year , the IRA spokesperson was reluctant to be drawn . He said the position had already been publicly stated on internal disciplinary matters - ' We have no intention of going over that ground again ' , he said :

: " All mistakes are regrettable and all damage the IRA in various ways . It is impossible to quantify . "

Asked about how the armed struggle in the North was relevant to the large number of unemployed south of the Border , the IRA spokesperson said the IRA was engaged in armed struggle in the Six Counties and political struggle in the 32 Counties of Ireland .

He acknowledged that they face an uphill battle in trying to get across an understanding of what is happening north of the Border .......

(MORE LATER).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(16 of 31).

On March 2 , 1974 , Henry Petersen , then Assistant U.S. Attorney General , wrote to the FBI : " As members of your staff are well aware , the Department of State together with the British Government have requested the Government of the United States to make all efforts to halt the shipment of weapons and explosives to Northern Ireland (sic) and punish those individuals who have violated our criminal statutes by engaging in such activities . I cannot express too strongly the seriousness of this situation . "

The authorities were still bent on proving that NORAID supplied money to the IRA directly , as well as being involved in the weapons-smuggling business ; in June 1972 , the U.S. Justice Department subpoenaed five New York members of NORAID to appear before a Grand Jury sitting in Fort Worth , Texas , to investigate arms smuggling across the Mexican border .......

(MORE LATER).






Tuesday, January 04, 2005

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... the 1921 Treaty of Surrender was lodged as a legal document with the 'League Of Nations' organisation in Geneva ; the Brits 'broke' that Treaty on 9th October 1924 when they took it on themselves to change Article 12 ('Boundary Commission' clause) of that Treaty . The Free Staters in Leinster House (being , of course , Free Staters !) failed to take Westminster to task for that illegal move .......


The earlier 1920 'Government of Ireland Act' (ie - two 'Home Rule Parliaments' for Ireland) was not referred to , or lodged with , the 'League Of Nations' in Geneva as " it never purported to be an agreement between two nations ... " , that is , the Brits refused to recognise the island of Ireland as a separate entity and considered that 1920 Act to be an " internal arrangement ... " .

However - there was , at the time (ie when the agreed version of the Boundary Commission clause was broke , by the Brits, on 9th October 1924) a legal (if not moral) obligation and/or opportunity (and reason) for the then Free State Administration to state that the then 3 year-old Treaty of Surrender had been broken by the Brits and was therefore invalid . That they did not do so spoke volumes of their future intentions - ie ' lets be grateful we got 26 Counties back and not push our luck with the Brits .....'

Anyway - the 1921 Treaty was changed by the Brits on the 9th October 1924 and , on the 24th October 1924 , J.R. Fisher was put in place , by Westminster , to do its bidding on the Boundary Commission which , as stated here previously , held its first meeting on 6th November 1924 , in London .......

(MORE LATER).


WE FIGHT ON , SAY IRA CHIEFS .......
... and Maggie is still on their hit list .

Twenty years into their campaign against the British Army , the IRA is still as far from victory , or defeat , as ever . Now , its leaders talk exclusinely about their plans .
Margaret Thatcher is still a target , so are some members of the British Royal family , while attacks on British forces in continental Europe will continue . Peace is out , says a spokesman , there is nothing to be gained from a ceasefire .

By Derek Dunne .
First published in 'NOW' magazine , volume 1 , No. 4 , October 1989 , pages 5 and 6 .
Re-published here in 10 parts .
( 7 of 10).

Speaking about informers , the IRA spokesperson stated - " There are so many opportunities for people to avoid the web before they get caught up in it and to extricate themselves ; there is no excuse in a life and death struggle for people to enter into a lengthy and dangerous relationship with the British forces ; we've had occasions where weapons have been bugged and IRA Volunteers have lost their lives , ambushed by the SAS in Dunloy , County Antrim ,in 1983 , for example .

Informers are not acting for the good of the people . We have a responsibility to protect our members , their morale , our organisations , the weapons of the struggle and the welfare of the people generally . " ('1169....' Comment - " Protect ... the weapons of the struggle .... " : the PIRA leadership are now preparing , for the fourth time , to hand over weapons to the Brits - a shameful act which the Provo suits promote as "progress" !)

However , despite adverse publicity surrounding the shooting of informers , the IRA described as " ridiculous " any suggestion that bad publicity would be a deciding factor in a decision on whether to kill an informer or not . The IRA spokesperson said that it is bad for the Movement to have to shoot one of its own members , or shoot someone who originates from the community on whose behalf that Movement is fighting .

Because IRA activity in the 26 Counties is low profile , the problem does not arise so much , said the spokesperson . On top of all that is the added difficulty of coming into conflict with the Dublin Government and its forces , and the media .......

(MORE LATER).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(15 of 31).

In early July 1973 , a United States interagency meeting was held to " co-ordinate these investigations in alleviating the Irish problem in the U.S. ." Officials from the U.S. State Department , the Justice Department , the FBI and the Treasury , as well as Brian Ahearn , Counsel for the Registration Unit Administrating F.A.R.A. , discussed the " Irish problems in the U.S. ... "

Among the topics touched on were illegal arms shipments and also " the flow of money ... " from Irish-Americans to Ireland . It is also apparent from memos around this period that the U.S. State Department was not the only agency to ask for and receive information on the INAC collected during the FARA investigation ; the British and Irish police and their 'diplomatic services' were given documents on the FBI's inquiry into the INAC and Irish people on a regular basis .......

(MORE LATER).






Monday, January 03, 2005

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION , 1921-1925 .......
A British 'sleight-of-hand' which caused a mutiny within British forces in Ireland.......

....... when the (pro-British) 'Prime Minister' of the Stormont 'Parliament' in the Six Partitioned Counties of Ireland , 'Sir' James Craig , refused to nominate a representative to the Boundary Commission , Westminster, at first, refused to establish any such Commission at all and sought legal advice on such a move from one of its own Legal Committees , the 'Judicial Committee of The Privy Council ' , which issued its findings on 31st July 1924 , stating - " If no appointment is made (by 'Sir' Craig) the (Boundary) Commission cannot go on ....... "


What happened next was , in this scribblers opinion , highly dubious and illegal : realising that they would have an 'inbuilt majority' on any Boundary Commission anyway , and could therefore control its conclusion , it seemed foolish not to set it up and use its 'findings' for propaganda purposes : so the Brits actually took it on themselves to amend the 1921 Treaty to allow themselves (ie Westminster) to appoint a representative to speak on behalf of the Stormont 'Parliament' !

It should be noted that the 1921 Treaty of Surrender (which set-up the Free State [and the Boundary Commission]) was lodged with the 'League of Nations' body in Geneva ; as already stated here , Article 12 of said Treaty concerned itself with the specifics of establishing a ' Boundary Commission ' . That set-up , as agreed and outlined in Article 12 , and as lodged in Geneva , was not properly adhered to by the signatories of the 1921 Treaty thereby , at least in this scribblers opinion , negating the Treaty itself .

I can only presume that the Free State administration would have been aware of this probable 'get-out' clause but choose not to take its case to Geneva ; instead , they ignored this breech of the 1921 Treaty despite the fact that they were witnessing war on the streets caused by that Treaty - ie Treaty signed 1921 , while the agreed terms of the 'Boundary Commission' was broke on 9th October 1924 .......

(MORE LATER).


WE FIGHT ON , SAY IRA CHIEFS .......
... and Maggie is still on their hit list .

Twenty years into their campaign against the British Army , the IRA is still as far from victory , or defeat , as ever . Now , its leaders talk exclusinely about their plans .
Margaret Thatcher is still a target , so are some members of the British Royal family , while attacks on British forces in continental Europe will continue . Peace is out , says a spokesman , there is nothing to be gained from a ceasefire .

By Derek Dunne .
First published in 'NOW' magazine , volume 1 , No. 4 , October 1989 , pages 5 and 6 .
Re-published here in 10 parts .
( 6 of 10).

Asked about media speculation , since the seizure of arms on the MV Eksund in late 1987 , that the IRA has 'SAM' surface-to-air missiles and may be preparing to use them , the IRA spokesperson said - " The IRA has Sams , Seans , Pats and Seamuses ; and we propose to use them all . Next question please . "

Another area of controversy involving the IRA recently has been the killing of alleged informers especially in the South ; the rules for such shootings are complex , said the IRA spokesperson , but come down to a number of basic things -

- " A person's age , their experience , how long they have been informing , why they were informing , if their informing led to Volunteers getting killed , injured or arrested . It's all a question of degree - many , many people who have informed and have come forward to the IRA have not been killed . The IRA regularly issues amnesties . I'd like you to quote a time when the British have had an amnesty in armed actions . It's a step the IRA takes reluctantly , to shoot someone . "

Almost invariably , say the IRA , the person they shoot comes from a nationalist area and there is a 'knock-on' effect with their families and the community in general . There is a demoralisation factor in shooting informers and the British are the 'winners' because these people are expendable .......

(MORE LATER).


NORAID'S UNTOLD MILLIONS .......

Irish-Americans have long had complex and contradictory relations with Ireland and the 'Irish Question' . On Saint Patrick's Day , all the ambiguities are apparent .
This year (ie 1987) , on Saint Patrick's Day , the latest book by Irish writer , Jack Holland was published in New York , exploring the tangled web of links between Irish-Americans and the Irish in Ireland , the IRA and the Irish government .

' The American Connection ' describes the activities of leading Irish-American politicians , of romanticising writers and of gun-runners .
In this edited extract , the author tells how Noraid was set up and how it has resisted pressures to disclose all the sources and uses of its funds .
First published in 'MAGILL' magazine , April 1987 .
Re-published here in 31 parts .
(14 of 31).

Also in Bergen County , New Jersey , another NORAID Unit , formed in January 1972 , was dissolved thirteen months later because of the FBI investigation ; the FBI noted - " Individuals did not want to become involved in any political type organisation which would register or be associated with registration as an agent for a foreign power . "

What is interesting about the FBI's memos is that they show the overriding concern to be stopping the fund-raising activities of the INAC ; the interest in finding violations of FARA seems secondary , a by-product of the effort to curtail support for the IRA .

Though NORAID was being called a " terrorist " organisation , it was engaged in the same activities in 1973 as it had been in 1971 when the FBI referred to its leadership as " conservative " and " responsible " . What had changed was the pressure on the American Government to do something to reduce fund-raising among Irish-Americans for the IRA or the IRA's cause , even though this kind of support was legal .......

(MORE LATER).